Dr. Ntara Published by Emerald in the International Trade, Politics and Development Journal

Monarch Business School Switzerland is happy to announce that recent PhD graduate and faculty member, Dr. Caroline Ntara from Kenya, has published an article with the International Trade, Politics and Development Journal of Emerald Publishing. The article is entitled “The International Business Landscape: A look at paradigms, research gaps and new realities. The content of the article is a direct outcome of her dissertation work within the PhD program at Monarch.

The article shows the interaction of the scholarship in International Business over time as well as pointing out historical blind spot with respect to methodology. The paper also addresses the critical point that IB Scholarship continues to consider the “firm” as the primary unit of analysis and that this limits the usefulness of its theories and stifles theory growth. It mentions that IB has borrowed heavily from other academic domains. The paper also addresses the usefulness of qualitative methodology and the use of research triangulation approaches to improve  scholarship and enhance rigour. The article concludes by pointing out the changing international landscape and importance of societal level issues citing the appearance of topics such as: changing power relationships, economic nationalism, sustainable development, growth of populism, and new digital technologies.


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse international business (IB) scholarship and present current gaps and new realities to enhance scholarly discourse.

Design / Methodology / Approach: The paper divides the scholarship into three distinct sections. First, it interrogates the changing definitions of the field from the 1880s to date. Secondly, IB paradigms are cross-examined while highlighting the understudied emerging interaction paradigm. Lastly, literature gaps, methodological gaps and new realities in IB are presented.

Findings: This research shows that IB inquiry has concentrated on firm-level paradigms, leaving the emerging interaction paradigm understudied. As a result, there is a deficit of novel ideas and limited research on critical emerging issues affecting IB. Further, simplistic methodologies are prevalent, making IB scholarship weak. Additionally, a majority of studies concentrate on the Americas, Europe and Asia, leaving Africa understudied.

Originality / Value: This research augments the need for scholars to cross-examine the best approach to apply in IB discourse and presents gaps calling for new insights and future research directions.

About The Author

Dr. Caroline Ntara
Professor of Management

Dr. Ntara holds the position of Professor of Management Studies at Monarch Business School Switzerland. She is an experienced lecturer and researcher with a demonstrated history of working in the higher education industry. Dr. Ntara holds a Doctor of Philosophy and a Master of Philosophy in International Business from Monarch Business school, Switzerland, a Master of Business Administration in International Business from the University of Nairobi, and a Bachelor of Education degree in Economics and Business from Kenyatta University. She holds a certificate of Certified Public Accountancy from the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Board and is a TEFL/TESOL certified trainer. Dr Ntara has received extensive training and gained experience in curriculum development, module creation, course development, review of manuscripts and students research, online learner management and best practices in teaching and learning.

Dr Ntara is a strong research professional with in-depth knowledge in writing both academic and business research, analysis, and review of research outputs. She is an accomplished researcher having published a book and many articles in peer-reviewed journals. Her areas of academic and research interests are international business, trade, regional integration, trading blocs, trade policy, economic growth and development. She is particularly passionate about research that has the potential to bring change to the African Continent.

Currently, Dr. Ntara is a peer reviewer and journal selection expert with Enago – Crimson Interactive and Adjunct faculty at UNICAF University teaching students from the University of South Wales (UK) and UNICAF Zambia. She has previously worked for the Knod Foundation, an American based institution teaching students from New Charter University (US) and HELP University in Malaysia where she worked as a facilitator of Project-Based learning and the flipped classroom approach. Dr. Ntara also worked for the Kenya Institute of Management as an internship and research supervisor, moderated and participated in thesis defence committees. Dr. Ntara has taught and supervised Diploma, Bachelor and Masters students at the Kenya Methodist University for ten years. During this time, she held various roles including the MBA coordinator, distance learning departmental coordinator, examination officer and was involved and led several curriculum development committees. Before joining academia, she worked at Barclays Bank Head Office in Nairobi, Kenya. During her career, Dr. Ntara has received many recognitions including exemplary peer reviewer, dependable team member, and a notable researcher. Over the years, Dr. Ntara has held memberships in organisations such as the European Centre for Research, Training and Development (UK), the International Academy of African Business and Development (IAABD) and the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM).

In addition to conducting and supervising research, Dr Ntara has received invitations and participated in conferences such as those organized by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Pan-African Strategic and Policy Research Group (PANAFSTRAG), Enago-Crimson Interactive, and the International Academy of African Business and Development (IAABD) as a guest speaker and panellist. Dr. Ntara is also a consultant and shares her research expertise with individuals and organizations keen on her areas of interest.